Monthly rainfall over the main Hawaiian Islands from a one-year simulation with the regional WRF-ARW model, as described in Zhang et al. (2012). Results from two versions of the model are shown in the middle and lower rows. Observations in the top row are objective analyses based on rain gauge observations at a large number of stations. Results for November 2005, March 2006, and August 2006 are shown (Keener et al. 2012).